Predicting Columns in a Table - In Depth¶

Tip: If you are new to AutoGluon, review Predicting Columns in a Table - Quick Start to learn the basics of the AutoGluon API.

This tutorial describes how you can exert greater control when using AutoGluon’s `fit()` or `predict()`. Recall that to maximize predictive performance, you should always first try `fit()` with all default arguments except `eval_metric` and `presets`, before you experiment with other arguments covered in this in-depth tutorial like `hyperparameter_tune`, `hyperparameters`, `stack_ensemble_levels`, `num_bagging_folds`, `num_bagging_sets`, etc.

Using the same census data table as in the Predicting Columns in a Table - Quick Start tutorial, we’ll now predict the `occupation` of an individual - a multiclass classification problem. Start by importing AutoGluon, specifying TabularPrediction as the task, and loading the data.

```import autogluon.core as ag
from autogluon.tabular import TabularPrediction as task

import numpy as np

subsample_size = 500  # subsample subset of data for faster demo, try setting this to much larger values
train_data = train_data.sample(n=subsample_size, random_state=0)

label_column = 'occupation'
print("Summary of occupation column: \n", train_data['occupation'].describe())

test_data = new_data[5000:].copy()  # this should be separate data in your applications
y_test = test_data[label_column]
test_data_nolabel = test_data.drop(labels=[label_column], axis=1)  # delete label column
val_data = new_data[:5000]

metric = 'accuracy' # we specify eval-metric just for demo (unnecessary as it's the default)
```
```       age workclass  fnlwgt      education  education-num  6118    51   Private   39264   Some-college             10
23204   58   Private   51662           10th              6
29590   40   Private  326310   Some-college             10
18116   37   Private  222450        HS-grad              9
33964   62   Private  109190      Bachelors             13

marital-status        occupation    relationship    race      sex  6118    Married-civ-spouse   Exec-managerial            Wife   White   Female
23204   Married-civ-spouse     Other-service            Wife   White   Female
29590   Married-civ-spouse      Craft-repair         Husband   White     Male
18116        Never-married             Sales   Not-in-family   White     Male
33964   Married-civ-spouse   Exec-managerial         Husband   White     Male

capital-gain  capital-loss  hours-per-week  native-country   class
6118              0             0              40   United-States    >50K
23204             0             0               8   United-States   <=50K
29590             0             0              44   United-States   <=50K
18116             0          2339              40     El-Salvador   <=50K
33964         15024             0              40   United-States    >50K
Summary of occupation column:
count                  500
unique                  15
top        Exec-managerial
freq                    77
Name: occupation, dtype: object```

Specifying hyperparameters and tuning them¶

We first demonstrate hyperparameter-tuning and how you can provide your own validation dataset that AutoGluon internally relies on to: tune hyperparameters, early-stop iterative training, and construct model ensembles. One reason you may specify validation data is when future test data will stem from a different distribution than training data (and your specified validation data is more representative of the future data that will likely be encountered).

If you don’t have a strong reason to provide your own validation dataset, we recommend you omit the `tuning_data` argument. This lets AutoGluon automatically select validation data from your provided training set (it uses smart strategies such as stratified sampling). For greater control, you can specify the `holdout_frac` argument to tell AutoGluon what fraction of the provided training data to hold out for validation.

Caution: Since AutoGluon tunes internal knobs based on this validation data, performance estimates reported on this data may be over-optimistic. For unbiased performance estimates, you should always call `predict()` on a separate dataset (that was never passed to `fit()`), as we did in the previous Quick-Start tutorial. We also emphasize that most options specified in this tutorial are chosen to minimize runtime for the purposes of demonstration and you should select more reasonable values in order to obtain high-quality models.

`fit()` trains neural networks and various types of tree ensembles by default. You can specify various hyperparameter values for each type of model. For each hyperparameter, you can either specify a single fixed value, or a search space of values to consider during hyperparameter optimization. Hyperparameters which you do not specify are left at default settings chosen automatically by AutoGluon, which may be fixed values or search spaces.

```hp_tune = True  # whether or not to do hyperparameter optimization

nn_options = {  # specifies non-default hyperparameter values for neural network models
'num_epochs': 10,  # number of training epochs (controls training time of NN models)
'learning_rate': ag.space.Real(1e-4, 1e-2, default=5e-4, log=True),  # learning rate used in training (real-valued hyperparameter searched on log-scale)
'activation': ag.space.Categorical('relu', 'softrelu', 'tanh'),  # activation function used in NN (categorical hyperparameter, default = first entry)
'layers': ag.space.Categorical([100],[1000],[200,100],[300,200,100]),  # each choice for categorical hyperparameter 'layers' corresponds to list of sizes for each NN layer to use
'dropout_prob': ag.space.Real(0.0, 0.5, default=0.1),  # dropout probability (real-valued hyperparameter)
}

gbm_options = {  # specifies non-default hyperparameter values for lightGBM gradient boosted trees
'num_boost_round': 100,  # number of boosting rounds (controls training time of GBM models)
'num_leaves': ag.space.Int(lower=26, upper=66, default=36),  # number of leaves in trees (integer hyperparameter)
}

hyperparameters = {  # hyperparameters of each model type
'GBM': gbm_options,
'NN': nn_options,  # NOTE: comment this line out if you get errors on Mac OSX
}  # When these keys are missing from hyperparameters dict, no models of that type are trained

time_limits = 2*60  # train various models for ~2 min
num_trials = 5  # try at most 3 different hyperparameter configurations for each type of model
search_strategy = 'skopt'  # to tune hyperparameters using SKopt Bayesian optimization routine

time_limits=time_limits, eval_metric=metric, num_trials=num_trials,
hyperparameter_tune=hp_tune, hyperparameters=hyperparameters,
search_strategy=search_strategy)
```
```Warning: hyperparameter_tune=True is currently experimental and may cause the process to hang. Setting auto_stack=True instead is recommended to achieve maximum quality models.
No output_directory specified. Models will be saved in: AutogluonModels/ag-20201023_215615/
Beginning AutoGluon training ... Time limit = 120s
AutoGluon will save models to AutogluonModels/ag-20201023_215615/
AutoGluon Version:  0.0.15b20201023
Train Data Rows:    500
Train Data Columns: 14
Tuning Data Rows:    5000
Tuning Data Columns: 14
Preprocessing data ...
AutoGluon infers your prediction problem is: 'multiclass' (because dtype of label-column == object).
First 10 (of 15) unique label values:  [' Exec-managerial', ' Other-service', ' Craft-repair', ' Sales', ' Prof-specialty', ' Protective-serv', ' ?', ' Adm-clerical', ' Machine-op-inspct', ' Tech-support']
If 'multiclass' is not the correct problem_type, please manually specify the problem_type argument in fit() (You may specify problem_type as one of: ['binary', 'multiclass', 'regression'])
Warning: Some classes in the training set have fewer than 10 examples. AutoGluon will only keep 12 out of 15 classes for training and will not try to predict the rare classes. To keep more classes, increase the number of datapoints from these rare classes in the training data or reduce label_count_threshold.
Fraction of data from classes with at least 10 examples that will be kept for training models: 0.978
Train Data Class Count: 12
Using Feature Generators to preprocess the data ...
Fitting AutoMLPipelineFeatureGenerator...
Available Memory:                    22024.99 MB
Train Data (Original)  Memory Usage: 3.11 MB (0.0% of available memory)
Inferring data type of each feature based on column values. Set feature_metadata_in to manually specify special dtypes of the features.
Stage 1 Generators:
Fitting AsTypeFeatureGenerator...
Stage 2 Generators:
Fitting FillNaFeatureGenerator...
Stage 3 Generators:
Fitting IdentityFeatureGenerator...
Fitting CategoryFeatureGenerator...
Fitting CategoryMemoryMinimizeFeatureGenerator...
Stage 4 Generators:
Fitting DropUniqueFeatureGenerator...
Types of features in original data (raw dtype, special dtypes):
('int', [])    : 6 | ['age', 'fnlwgt', 'education-num', 'capital-gain', 'capital-loss', ...]
('object', []) : 8 | ['workclass', 'education', 'marital-status', 'relationship', 'race', ...]
Types of features in processed data (raw dtype, special dtypes):
('category', []) : 8 | ['workclass', 'education', 'marital-status', 'relationship', 'race', ...]
('int', [])      : 6 | ['age', 'fnlwgt', 'education-num', 'capital-gain', 'capital-loss', ...]
0.1s = Fit runtime
14 features in original data used to generate 14 features in processed data.
Train Data (Processed) Memory Usage: 0.3 MB (0.0% of available memory)
Data preprocessing and feature engineering runtime = 0.08s ...
AutoGluon will gauge predictive performance using evaluation metric: 'accuracy'
To change this, specify the eval_metric argument of fit()
AutoGluon will early stop models using evaluation metric: 'accuracy'
scheduler_options: Key 'training_history_callback_delta_secs': Imputing default value 60
scheduler_options: Key 'delay_get_config': Imputing default value True

Starting Experiments
Num of Finished Tasks is 0
Num of Pending Tasks is 5```
```HBox(children=(HTML(value=''), FloatProgress(value=0.0, max=5.0), HTML(value='')))
```
```Time out (secs) is 54.0
```
```Please either provide filename or allow plot in get_training_curves
0.1714   = Validation accuracy score
5.82s    = Training runtime
0.44s    = Validation runtime
0.1382   = Validation accuracy score
5.85s    = Training runtime
0.36s    = Validation runtime
0.1306   = Validation accuracy score
5.96s    = Training runtime
0.35s    = Validation runtime
0.2184   = Validation accuracy score
5.88s    = Training runtime
0.45s    = Validation runtime
0.129    = Validation accuracy score
5.88s    = Training runtime
0.44s    = Validation runtime
/var/lib/jenkins/miniconda3/envs/autogluon_docs/lib/python3.7/site-packages/lightgbm/basic.py:1286: UserWarning: Overriding the parameters from Reference Dataset.
warnings.warn('Overriding the parameters from Reference Dataset.')
/var/lib/jenkins/miniconda3/envs/autogluon_docs/lib/python3.7/site-packages/lightgbm/basic.py:1098: UserWarning: categorical_column in param dict is overridden.
warnings.warn('{} in param dict is overridden.'.format(cat_alias))
scheduler_options: Key 'training_history_callback_delta_secs': Imputing default value 60
scheduler_options: Key 'delay_get_config': Imputing default value True

Starting Experiments
Num of Finished Tasks is 0
Num of Pending Tasks is 5
```
```HBox(children=(HTML(value=''), FloatProgress(value=0.0, max=5.0), HTML(value='')))
```
```Time out (secs) is 54.0
```
```    0.3008   = Validation accuracy score
6.33s    = Training runtime
0.03s    = Validation runtime
0.3016   = Validation accuracy score
5.56s    = Training runtime
0.03s    = Validation runtime
0.3147   = Validation accuracy score
4.19s    = Training runtime
0.03s    = Validation runtime
0.2811   = Validation accuracy score
12.48s   = Training runtime
0.05s    = Validation runtime
0.3168   = Validation accuracy score
4.39s    = Training runtime
0.02s    = Validation runtime
Fitting model: weighted_ensemble_k0_l1 ... Training model for up to 119.92s of the 49.41s of remaining time.
0.324    = Validation accuracy score
1.24s    = Training runtime
0.0s     = Validation runtime
AutoGluon training complete, total runtime = 71.86s ...
```

We again demonstrate how to use the trained models to predict on the test data.

```y_pred = predictor.predict(test_data_nolabel)
print("Predictions:  ", list(y_pred)[:5])
perf = predictor.evaluate_predictions(y_true=y_test, y_pred=y_pred, auxiliary_metrics=False)
```
```Evaluation: accuracy on test data: 0.29922415600754876
```
```Predictions:   [' Exec-managerial', ' Craft-repair', ' Craft-repair', ' Adm-clerical', ' Sales']
```

Use the following to view a summary of what happened during fit. Now this command will show details of the hyperparameter-tuning process for each type of model:

```results = predictor.fit_summary()
```
```* Summary of fit() *
Estimated performance of each model:
model  score_val  pred_time_val   fit_time  pred_time_val_marginal  fit_time_marginal  stack_level  can_infer  fit_order
0       weighted_ensemble_k0_l1   0.323970       0.940255  21.518777                0.001088           1.239636            1       True         11
1    LightGBMClassifier/trial_9   0.316793       0.021754   4.385312                0.021754           4.385312            0       True         10
2    LightGBMClassifier/trial_7   0.314743       0.033904   4.185973                0.033904           4.185973            0       True          8
3    LightGBMClassifier/trial_6   0.301620       0.030298   5.556047                0.030298           5.556047            0       True          7
4    LightGBMClassifier/trial_5   0.300800       0.026614   6.325098                0.026614           6.325098            0       True          6
5    LightGBMClassifier/trial_8   0.281115       0.047038  12.475222                0.047038          12.475222            0       True          9
6   NeuralNetClassifier/trial_3   0.218372       0.448898   5.884022                0.448898           5.884022            0       True          4
7   NeuralNetClassifier/trial_0   0.171417       0.441343   5.823708                0.441343           5.823708            0       True          1
8   NeuralNetClassifier/trial_1   0.138200       0.355297   5.850037                0.355297           5.850037            0       True          2
9   NeuralNetClassifier/trial_2   0.130613       0.353512   5.958589                0.353512           5.958589            0       True          3
10  NeuralNetClassifier/trial_4   0.128973       0.442166   5.884149                0.442166           5.884149            0       True          5
Number of models trained: 11
Types of models trained:
{'LGBModel', 'WeightedEnsembleModel', 'TabularNeuralNetModel'}
Bagging used: False
Stack-ensembling used: False
Hyperparameter-tuning used: True
User-specified hyperparameters:
{'default': {'GBM': [{'num_boost_round': 100, 'num_leaves': Int: lower=26, upper=66}], 'NN': [{'num_epochs': 10, 'learning_rate': Real: lower=0.0001, upper=0.01, 'activation': Categorical['relu', 'softrelu', 'tanh'], 'layers': Categorical[[100], [1000], [200, 100], [300, 200, 100]], 'dropout_prob': Real: lower=0.0, upper=0.5}]}}
(raw dtype, special dtypes):
('category', []) : 8 | ['workclass', 'education', 'marital-status', 'relationship', 'race', ...]
('int', [])      : 6 | ['age', 'fnlwgt', 'education-num', 'capital-gain', 'capital-loss', ...]
Plot summary of models saved to file: AutogluonModels/ag-20201023_215615/SummaryOfModels.html
Plot summary of models saved to file: AutogluonModels/ag-20201023_215615/NeuralNetClassifier_HPOmodelsummary.html
Plot summary of models saved to file: NeuralNetClassifier_HPOmodelsummary.html
Plot of HPO performance saved to file: AutogluonModels/ag-20201023_215615/NeuralNetClassifier_HPOperformanceVStrials.png```
```Plot summary of models saved to file: AutogluonModels/ag-20201023_215615/LightGBMClassifier_HPOmodelsummary.html
Plot summary of models saved to file: LightGBMClassifier_HPOmodelsummary.html
Plot of HPO performance saved to file: AutogluonModels/ag-20201023_215615/LightGBMClassifier_HPOperformanceVStrials.png
```
```* Details of Hyperparameter optimization *
HPO for NeuralNetClassifier model:  Num. configurations tried = 5, Time spent = 33.14635229110718s, Search strategy = skopt
Best hyperparameter-configuration (validation-performance: accuracy = 0.2183719499692434):
{'activation▁choice': 2, 'dropout_prob': 0.3595955114345218, 'embedding_size_factor': 0.5990884338158273, 'layers▁choice': 0, 'learning_rate': 0.006861469043807388, 'network_type▁choice': 0, 'use_batchnorm▁choice': 0, 'weight_decay': 0.0003634979018469688}
HPO for LightGBMClassifier model:  Num. configurations tried = 5, Time spent = 33.609809160232544s, Search strategy = skopt
Best hyperparameter-configuration (validation-performance: accuracy = -0.7156038548287882):
{'feature_fraction': 0.7634658118633497, 'learning_rate': 0.054884734538583564, 'min_data_in_leaf': 29, 'num_leaves': 49}
* End of fit() summary *```

In the above example, the predictive performance may be poor because we specified very little training to ensure quick runtimes. You can call `fit()` multiple times while modifying the above settings to better understand how these choices affect performance outcomes. For example: you can comment out the `train_data.head` command or increase `subsample_size` to train using a larger dataset, increase the `num_epochs` and `num_boost_round` hyperparameters, and increase the `time_limits` (which you should do for all code in these tutorials). To see more detailed output during the execution of `fit()`, you can also pass in the argument: `verbosity = 3`.

Model ensembling with stacking/bagging¶

Beyond hyperparameter-tuning with a correctly-specified evaluation metric, two other methods to boost predictive performance are bagging and stack-ensembling. You’ll often see performance improve if you specify `num_bagging_folds` = 5-10, `stack_ensemble_levels` = 1-3 in the call to `fit()`, but this will increase training times and memory/disk usage.

```predictor = task.fit(train_data=train_data, label=label_column, eval_metric=metric,
num_bagging_folds=5, num_bagging_sets=1, stack_ensemble_levels=1,
hyperparameters = {'NN': {'num_epochs': 2}, 'GBM': {'num_boost_round': 20}}  # last  argument is just for quick demo here, omit it in real applications
)
```
```No output_directory specified. Models will be saved in: AutogluonModels/ag-20201023_215729/
Beginning AutoGluon training ...
AutoGluon will save models to AutogluonModels/ag-20201023_215729/
AutoGluon Version:  0.0.15b20201023
Train Data Rows:    500
Train Data Columns: 14
Preprocessing data ...
AutoGluon infers your prediction problem is: 'multiclass' (because dtype of label-column == object).
First 10 (of 15) unique label values:  [' Exec-managerial', ' Other-service', ' Craft-repair', ' Sales', ' Prof-specialty', ' Protective-serv', ' ?', ' Adm-clerical', ' Machine-op-inspct', ' Tech-support']
If 'multiclass' is not the correct problem_type, please manually specify the problem_type argument in fit() (You may specify problem_type as one of: ['binary', 'multiclass', 'regression'])
Warning: Some classes in the training set have fewer than 10 examples. AutoGluon will only keep 12 out of 15 classes for training and will not try to predict the rare classes. To keep more classes, increase the number of datapoints from these rare classes in the training data or reduce label_count_threshold.
Fraction of data from classes with at least 10 examples that will be kept for training models: 0.978
Train Data Class Count: 12
Using Feature Generators to preprocess the data ...
Fitting AutoMLPipelineFeatureGenerator...
Available Memory:                    21945.66 MB
Train Data (Original)  Memory Usage: 0.29 MB (0.0% of available memory)
Inferring data type of each feature based on column values. Set feature_metadata_in to manually specify special dtypes of the features.
Stage 1 Generators:
Fitting AsTypeFeatureGenerator...
Stage 2 Generators:
Fitting FillNaFeatureGenerator...
Stage 3 Generators:
Fitting IdentityFeatureGenerator...
Fitting CategoryFeatureGenerator...
Fitting CategoryMemoryMinimizeFeatureGenerator...
Stage 4 Generators:
Fitting DropUniqueFeatureGenerator...
Types of features in original data (raw dtype, special dtypes):
('int', [])    : 6 | ['age', 'fnlwgt', 'education-num', 'capital-gain', 'capital-loss', ...]
('object', []) : 8 | ['workclass', 'education', 'marital-status', 'relationship', 'race', ...]
Types of features in processed data (raw dtype, special dtypes):
('category', []) : 8 | ['workclass', 'education', 'marital-status', 'relationship', 'race', ...]
('int', [])      : 6 | ['age', 'fnlwgt', 'education-num', 'capital-gain', 'capital-loss', ...]
0.0s = Fit runtime
14 features in original data used to generate 14 features in processed data.
Train Data (Processed) Memory Usage: 0.03 MB (0.0% of available memory)
Data preprocessing and feature engineering runtime = 0.06s ...
AutoGluon will gauge predictive performance using evaluation metric: 'accuracy'
To change this, specify the eval_metric argument of fit()
AutoGluon will early stop models using evaluation metric: 'accuracy'
Fitting model: NeuralNetClassifier_STACKER_l0 ...
0.1247   = Validation accuracy score
1.94s    = Training runtime
0.16s    = Validation runtime
Fitting model: LightGBMClassifier_STACKER_l0 ...
0.3129   = Validation accuracy score
4.17s    = Training runtime
0.06s    = Validation runtime
Fitting model: weighted_ensemble_k0_l1 ...
0.317    = Validation accuracy score
0.1s     = Training runtime
0.0s     = Validation runtime
Fitting model: NeuralNetClassifier_STACKER_l1 ...
0.1063   = Validation accuracy score
2.06s    = Training runtime
0.2s     = Validation runtime
Fitting model: LightGBMClassifier_STACKER_l1 ...
0.317    = Validation accuracy score
4.47s    = Training runtime
0.06s    = Validation runtime
Fitting model: weighted_ensemble_k0_l2 ...
0.319    = Validation accuracy score
0.11s    = Training runtime
0.0s     = Validation runtime
AutoGluon training complete, total runtime = 13.54s ...
```

You should not provide `tuning_data` when stacking/bagging, and instead provide all your available data as `train_data` (which AutoGluon will split in more intellgent ways). `num_bagging_sets` controls how many times the k-fold bagging process is repeated to further reduce variance (increasing this may further boost accuracy but will substantially increase training times, inference latency, and memory/disk usage). Rather than manually searching for good bagging/stacking values yourself, AutoGluon will automatically select good values for you if you specify `auto_stack` instead:

```output_directory = 'agModels-predictOccupation'  # folder where to store trained models

auto_stack=True, output_directory=output_directory,
hyperparameters={'NN': {'num_epochs': 2}, 'GBM': {'num_boost_round': 20}}, time_limits=30  # last 2 arguments are for quick demo, omit them in real applications
)
```
```Beginning AutoGluon training ... Time limit = 30s
AutoGluon will save models to agModels-predictOccupation/
AutoGluon Version:  0.0.15b20201023
Train Data Rows:    500
Train Data Columns: 14
Preprocessing data ...
AutoGluon infers your prediction problem is: 'multiclass' (because dtype of label-column == object).
First 10 (of 15) unique label values:  [' Exec-managerial', ' Other-service', ' Craft-repair', ' Sales', ' Prof-specialty', ' Protective-serv', ' ?', ' Adm-clerical', ' Machine-op-inspct', ' Tech-support']
If 'multiclass' is not the correct problem_type, please manually specify the problem_type argument in fit() (You may specify problem_type as one of: ['binary', 'multiclass', 'regression'])
Warning: Some classes in the training set have fewer than 10 examples. AutoGluon will only keep 12 out of 15 classes for training and will not try to predict the rare classes. To keep more classes, increase the number of datapoints from these rare classes in the training data or reduce label_count_threshold.
Fraction of data from classes with at least 10 examples that will be kept for training models: 0.978
Train Data Class Count: 12
Using Feature Generators to preprocess the data ...
Fitting AutoMLPipelineFeatureGenerator...
Available Memory:                    21864.57 MB
Train Data (Original)  Memory Usage: 0.29 MB (0.0% of available memory)
Inferring data type of each feature based on column values. Set feature_metadata_in to manually specify special dtypes of the features.
Stage 1 Generators:
Fitting AsTypeFeatureGenerator...
Stage 2 Generators:
Fitting FillNaFeatureGenerator...
Stage 3 Generators:
Fitting IdentityFeatureGenerator...
Fitting CategoryFeatureGenerator...
Fitting CategoryMemoryMinimizeFeatureGenerator...
Stage 4 Generators:
Fitting DropUniqueFeatureGenerator...
Types of features in original data (raw dtype, special dtypes):
('int', [])    : 6 | ['age', 'fnlwgt', 'education-num', 'capital-gain', 'capital-loss', ...]
('object', []) : 8 | ['workclass', 'education', 'marital-status', 'relationship', 'race', ...]
Types of features in processed data (raw dtype, special dtypes):
('category', []) : 8 | ['workclass', 'education', 'marital-status', 'relationship', 'race', ...]
('int', [])      : 6 | ['age', 'fnlwgt', 'education-num', 'capital-gain', 'capital-loss', ...]
0.1s = Fit runtime
14 features in original data used to generate 14 features in processed data.
Train Data (Processed) Memory Usage: 0.03 MB (0.0% of available memory)
Data preprocessing and feature engineering runtime = 0.07s ...
AutoGluon will gauge predictive performance using evaluation metric: 'accuracy'
To change this, specify the eval_metric argument of fit()
AutoGluon will early stop models using evaluation metric: 'accuracy'
Fitting model: NeuralNetClassifier_STACKER_l0 ... Training model for up to 29.93s of the 29.93s of remaining time.
0.0961   = Validation accuracy score
1.98s    = Training runtime
0.16s    = Validation runtime
Fitting model: LightGBMClassifier_STACKER_l0 ... Training model for up to 27.76s of the 27.76s of remaining time.
0.3129   = Validation accuracy score
4.15s    = Training runtime
0.06s    = Validation runtime
Repeating k-fold bagging: 2/20
Fitting model: NeuralNetClassifier_STACKER_l0 ... Training model for up to 23.52s of the 23.52s of remaining time.
0.1166   = Validation accuracy score
3.95s    = Training runtime
0.33s    = Validation runtime
Fitting model: LightGBMClassifier_STACKER_l0 ... Training model for up to 21.34s of the 21.34s of remaining time.
0.3047   = Validation accuracy score
8.3s     = Training runtime
0.12s    = Validation runtime
Repeating k-fold bagging: 3/20
Fitting model: NeuralNetClassifier_STACKER_l0 ... Training model for up to 17.11s of the 17.11s of remaining time.
0.1329   = Validation accuracy score
5.92s    = Training runtime
0.49s    = Validation runtime
Fitting model: LightGBMClassifier_STACKER_l0 ... Training model for up to 14.94s of the 14.94s of remaining time.
0.2986   = Validation accuracy score
12.45s   = Training runtime
0.18s    = Validation runtime
Repeating k-fold bagging: 4/20
Fitting model: NeuralNetClassifier_STACKER_l0 ... Training model for up to 10.71s of the 10.71s of remaining time.
0.1247   = Validation accuracy score
7.9s     = Training runtime
0.64s    = Validation runtime
Fitting model: LightGBMClassifier_STACKER_l0 ... Training model for up to 8.53s of the 8.53s of remaining time.
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 11% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 11% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 11% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 12% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 13% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
0.3067   = Validation accuracy score
16.57s   = Training runtime
0.24s    = Validation runtime
Completed 4/20 k-fold bagging repeats ...
Fitting model: weighted_ensemble_k0_l1 ... Training model for up to 29.93s of the 4.32s of remaining time.
0.3108   = Validation accuracy score
0.1s     = Training runtime
0.0s     = Validation runtime
AutoGluon training complete, total runtime = 25.79s ...
```

Often stacking/bagging will produce superior accuracy than hyperparameter-tuning, but you may try combining both techniques (note: specifying `presets='best_quality'` in `fit()` simply sets `auto_stack = True`).

Prediction options (inference)¶

Even if you’ve started a new Python session since last calling `fit()`, you can still load a previously trained predictor from disk:

```predictor = task.load(output_directory)
```

Above `output_directory` is the same folder previously passed to `fit()`, in which all the trained models have been saved. You can train easily models on one machine and deploy them on another. Simply copy the `output_directory` folder to the new machine and specify its new path in `task.load()`.

We can make a prediction on an individual example rather than a full dataset:

```datapoint = test_data_nolabel.iloc[[0]]  # Note: .iloc[0] won't work because it returns pandas Series instead of DataFrame
print(datapoint)
print(predictor.predict(datapoint))
```
```      age workclass  fnlwgt      education  education-num marital-status  5000   49   Private  259087   Some-college             10       Divorced

relationship    race      sex  capital-gain  capital-loss  5000   Not-in-family   White   Female             0             0

hours-per-week  native-country   class
5000              40   United-States   <=50K
[' Exec-managerial']```

To output predicted class probabilities instead of predicted classes, you can use:

```predictor.predict_proba(datapoint, as_pandas=True)  # as_pandas shows which probability corresponds to which class
```
? Adm-clerical Armed-Forces Craft-repair Exec-managerial Farming-fishing Handlers-cleaners Machine-op-inspct Other-service Priv-house-serv Prof-specialty Protective-serv Sales Tech-support Transport-moving
5000 0.050646 0.122795 0.0 0.119093 0.195809 0.04207 0.053171 0.061199 0.065746 0.0 0.083764 0.0 0.08861 0.040614 0.076483

By default, `predict()` and `predict_proba()` will utilize the model that AutoGluon thinks is most accurate, which is usually an ensemble of many individual models. Here’s how to see which model this is:

```predictor.get_model_best()
```
```'weighted_ensemble_k0_l1'
```

We can instead specify a particular model to use for predictions (e.g. to reduce inference latency). Note that a ‘model’ in AutoGluon may refer to for example a single Neural Network, a bagged ensemble of many Neural Network copies trained on different training/validation splits, a weighted ensemble that aggregates the predictions of many other models, or a stacker model that operates on predictions output by other models. This is akin to viewing a Random Forest as one ‘model’ when it is in fact an ensemble of many decision trees.

Before deciding which model to use, let’s evaluate all of the models AutoGluon has previously trained on our test data:

```predictor.leaderboard(test_data, silent=True)
```
```distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 12% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 11% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 11% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 11% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 11% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 11% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 11% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 11% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 11% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 11% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 11% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
```
model score_test score_val pred_time_test pred_time_val fit_time pred_time_test_marginal pred_time_val_marginal fit_time_marginal stack_level can_infer fit_order
0 LightGBMClassifier_STACKER_l0 0.288530 0.306748 0.417604 0.242985 16.571771 0.417604 0.242985 16.571771 0 True 2
1 weighted_ensemble_k0_l1 0.288530 0.310838 13.732351 0.884005 24.579626 0.003059 0.000422 0.104145 1 True 3
2 NeuralNetClassifier_STACKER_l0 0.121409 0.124744 13.311687 0.640599 7.903710 13.311687 0.640599 7.903710 0 True 1

The leaderboard shows each model’s predictive performance on the test data (`score_test`) and validation data (`score_val`), as well as the time required to: produce predictions for the test data (`pred_time_val`), produce predictions on the validation data (`pred_time_val`), and train only this model (`fit_time`). Below, we show that a leaderboard can be produced without new data (just uses the data previously reserved for validation inside `fit`) and can display extra information about each model:

```predictor.leaderboard(extra_info=True, silent=True)
```
```distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 11% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 12% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 12% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 12% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 13% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 13% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 13% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 13% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 13% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 14% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 15% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 15% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 15% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 16% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 17% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 17% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 18% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 18% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 19% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 24% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 26% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 28% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 30% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 33% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 36% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 42% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 46% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 55% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 66% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 79% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 86% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 86% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 87% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 87% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 87% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 87% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 87% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 87% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 87% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 88% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 88% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 88% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 87% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 87% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
```
model score_val pred_time_val fit_time pred_time_val_marginal fit_time_marginal stack_level can_infer fit_order num_features ... child_model_type hyperparameters hyperparameters_fit AG_args_fit features child_hyperparameters child_hyperparameters_fit child_AG_args_fit ancestors descendants
0 weighted_ensemble_k0_l1 0.310838 0.884005 24.579626 0.000422 0.104145 1 True 3 24 ... GreedyWeightedEnsembleModel {'max_models': 25, 'max_models_per_type': 5} {} {'max_memory_usage_ratio': 1.0, 'max_time_limi... [NeuralNetClassifier_STACKER_l0_9, LightGBMCla... {'ensemble_size': 100} {'ensemble_size': 9} {'max_memory_usage_ratio': 1.0, 'max_time_limi... [NeuralNetClassifier_STACKER_l0, LightGBMClass... []
1 LightGBMClassifier_STACKER_l0 0.306748 0.242985 16.571771 0.242985 16.571771 0 True 2 14 ... LGBModel {'max_models': 25, 'max_models_per_type': 5} {} {'max_memory_usage_ratio': 1.0, 'max_time_limi... [workclass, education-num, marital-status, cla... {'num_boost_round': 20, 'num_threads': -1, 'ob... {'num_boost_round': 12} {'max_memory_usage_ratio': 1.0, 'max_time_limi... [] [weighted_ensemble_k0_l1]
2 NeuralNetClassifier_STACKER_l0 0.124744 0.640599 7.903710 0.640599 7.903710 0 True 1 14 ... TabularNeuralNetModel {'max_models': 25, 'max_models_per_type': 5} {} {'max_memory_usage_ratio': 1.0, 'max_time_limi... [workclass, education-num, marital-status, cla... {'num_epochs': 2, 'epochs_wo_improve': 20, 'se... {'num_epochs': 2} {'ignored_type_group_special': ['text_ngram', ... [] [weighted_ensemble_k0_l1]

3 rows × 29 columns

The expanded leaderboard shows properties like how many features are used by each model (`num_features`), which other models are ancestors whose predictions are required inputs for each model (`ancestors`), and how much memory each model and all its ancestors would occupy if simultaneously persisted (`memory_size_w_ancestors`). See the leaderboard documentation for full details.

Here’s how to specify a particular model to use for prediction instead of AutoGluon’s default model-choice:

```i = 0  # index of model to use
model_to_use = predictor.get_model_names()[i]
model_pred = predictor.predict(datapoint, model=model_to_use)
print("Prediction from %s model: %s" % (model_to_use, model_pred))
```
```Prediction from NeuralNetClassifier_STACKER_l0 model: [' Adm-clerical']
```

We can easily access various information about the trained predictor or a particular model:

```all_models = predictor.get_model_names()
model_to_use = all_models[i]

# Objects defined below are dicts of various information (not printed here as they are quite large):
model_info = specific_model.get_info()
predictor_information = predictor.info()
```
```distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 75% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 75% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 75% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 75% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 75% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 75% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 75% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 78% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 77% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 77% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 77% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 77% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 77% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 77% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 77% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 77% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 77% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 77% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 77% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 77% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 76% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 74% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 74% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 74% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 73% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 73% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 73% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 73% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 74% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 73% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 85% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 85% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 85% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 85% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 85% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 85% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 85% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 85% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 85% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 85% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 85% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 85% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 82% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 82% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 82% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 82% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 82% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 82% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 82% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 82% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 83% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 86% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 87% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 87% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 87% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 87% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 87% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 87% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 88% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 88% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 88% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 88% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 88% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 88% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 88% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
```

The `predictor` also remembers what metric predictions should be evaluated with, which can be done with ground truth labels as follows:

```y_pred = predictor.predict(test_data_nolabel)
predictor.evaluate_predictions(y_true=y_test, y_pred=y_pred, auxiliary_metrics=True)
```
```distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 64% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 53% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 46% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 42% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 37% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 34% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 31% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 28% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 27% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 25% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 23% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
Evaluation: accuracy on test data: 0.2885300901656532
Evaluations on test data:
{
"accuracy": 0.2885300901656532,
"accuracy_score": 0.2885300901656532,
"balanced_accuracy_score": 0.19115808471772017,
"matthews_corrcoef": 0.20011333951633872
}
/var/lib/jenkins/miniconda3/envs/autogluon_docs/lib/python3.7/site-packages/sklearn/metrics/_classification.py:1221: UndefinedMetricWarning: Precision and F-score are ill-defined and being set to 0.0 in labels with no predicted samples. Use zero_division parameter to control this behavior.
_warn_prf(average, modifier, msg_start, len(result))
Detailed (per-class) classification report:
{
" ?": {
"precision": 0.9814814814814815,
"recall": 0.7186440677966102,
"f1-score": 0.8297455968688845,
"support": 295
},
"precision": 0.2344213649851632,
"recall": 0.28884826325411334,
"f1-score": 0.2588042588042587,
"support": 547
},
" Armed-Forces": {
"precision": 0.0,
"recall": 0.0,
"f1-score": 0.0,
"support": 1
},
" Craft-repair": {
"precision": 0.2945914844649022,
"recall": 0.4082934609250399,
"f1-score": 0.34224598930481287,
"support": 627
},
" Exec-managerial": {
"precision": 0.2484076433121019,
"recall": 0.37925445705024313,
"f1-score": 0.30019243104554205,
"support": 617
},
" Farming-fishing": {
"precision": 0.0,
"recall": 0.0,
"f1-score": 0.0,
"support": 121
},
" Handlers-cleaners": {
"precision": 0.12244897959183673,
"recall": 0.08955223880597014,
"f1-score": 0.10344827586206895,
"support": 201
},
" Machine-op-inspct": {
"precision": 0.1412639405204461,
"recall": 0.13523131672597866,
"f1-score": 0.1381818181818182,
"support": 281
},
" Other-service": {
"precision": 0.26406926406926406,
"recall": 0.13863636363636364,
"f1-score": 0.18181818181818182,
"support": 440
},
" Priv-house-serv": {
"precision": 0.0,
"recall": 0.0,
"f1-score": 0.0,
"support": 20
},
" Prof-specialty": {
"precision": 0.3870558375634518,
"recall": 0.5066445182724253,
"f1-score": 0.43884892086330934,
"support": 602
},
" Protective-serv": {
"precision": 0.0,
"recall": 0.0,
"f1-score": 0.0,
"support": 111
},
" Sales": {
"precision": 0.1510791366906475,
"recall": 0.15412844036697249,
"f1-score": 0.15258855585831063,
"support": 545
},
" Tech-support": {
"precision": 0.5,
"recall": 0.007042253521126761,
"f1-score": 0.01388888888888889,
"support": 142
},
" Transport-moving": {
"precision": 0.15517241379310345,
"recall": 0.0410958904109589,
"f1-score": 0.06498194945848376,
"support": 219
},
"accuracy": 0.2885300901656532,
"macro avg": {
"precision": 0.2319994364314932,
"recall": 0.19115808471772017,
"f1-score": 0.1883163244636373,
"support": 4769
},
"weighted avg": {
"precision": 0.2844555024264947,
"recall": 0.2885300901656532,
"f1-score": 0.2703546074030102,
"support": 4769
}
}```
```OrderedDict([('accuracy', 0.2885300901656532),
('accuracy_score', 0.2885300901656532),
('balanced_accuracy_score', 0.19115808471772017),
('matthews_corrcoef', 0.20011333951633872),
('confusion_matrix',
?   Adm-clerical   Armed-Forces   Craft-repair                 ?                  212              8              0             11
Armed-Forces         0              0              0              0
Craft-repair         0             46              0            256
Exec-managerial      1             73              0             59
Farming-fishing      0             11              0             26
Handlers-cleaners    1             31              0             60
Machine-op-inspct    0             46              0            106
Other-service        1            111              0             66
Priv-house-serv      0              2              0              2
Prof-specialty       1             40              0             30
Protective-serv      0             11              0             32
Sales                0            100              0             69
Tech-support         0             24              0             24
Transport-moving     0             13              0             74

Exec-managerial   Farming-fishing   Handlers-cleaners                 ?                                44                 0                   0
Armed-Forces                      0                 0                   0
Craft-repair                     84                 4                  33
Exec-managerial                 234                 2                   5
Farming-fishing                  13                 0                   7
Handlers-cleaners                10                 1                  18
Machine-op-inspct                23                 1                  10
Other-service                    35                 0                  21
Priv-house-serv                   5                 0                   0
Prof-specialty                  170                 0                   3
Protective-serv                  24                 1                   5
Sales                           130                 1                  20
Tech-support                     30                 1                   2
Transport-moving                 38                 3                  13

Machine-op-inspct   Other-service   Priv-house-serv                 ?                                   3               0                 0
Armed-Forces                        0               0                 0
Craft-repair                       70              10                 0
Exec-managerial                     7               6                 0
Farming-fishing                    15               2                 0
Handlers-cleaners                  33               8                 0
Machine-op-inspct                  38              24                 0
Other-service                      29              61                 0
Priv-house-serv                     2               7                 0
Prof-specialty                      7               9                 0
Protective-serv                     5               1                 0
Sales                              13              40                 0
Tech-support                        3               7                 0
Transport-moving                   27               4                 0

Prof-specialty   Protective-serv   Sales   Tech-support                 ?                                8                 0       3              0
Armed-Forces                     1                 0       0              0
Craft-repair                    56                 0      59              0
Exec-managerial                162                 0      65              0
Farming-fishing                  6                 0      27              0
Handlers-cleaners                4                 0      32              0
Machine-op-inspct                9                 0      20              0
Other-service                   18                 0      93              0
Priv-house-serv                  1                 0       1              0
Prof-specialty                 305                 0      37              0
Protective-serv                 16                 0      15              0
Sales                           85                 0      84              0
Tech-support                    37                 0      13              1
Transport-moving                 6                 0      32              0

Transport-moving
?                                  6
Armed-Forces                       0
Craft-repair                       9
Exec-managerial                    3
Farming-fishing                   14
Handlers-cleaners                  3
Machine-op-inspct                  4
Other-service                      5
Priv-house-serv                    0
Prof-specialty                     0
Protective-serv                    1
Sales                              3
Tech-support                       0
Transport-moving                   9  ),
('classification_report',
{' ?': {'precision': 0.9814814814814815,
'recall': 0.7186440677966102,
'f1-score': 0.8297455968688845,
'support': 295},
'recall': 0.28884826325411334,
'f1-score': 0.2588042588042587,
'support': 547},
' Armed-Forces': {'precision': 0.0,
'recall': 0.0,
'f1-score': 0.0,
'support': 1},
' Craft-repair': {'precision': 0.2945914844649022,
'recall': 0.4082934609250399,
'f1-score': 0.34224598930481287,
'support': 627},
' Exec-managerial': {'precision': 0.2484076433121019,
'recall': 0.37925445705024313,
'f1-score': 0.30019243104554205,
'support': 617},
' Farming-fishing': {'precision': 0.0,
'recall': 0.0,
'f1-score': 0.0,
'support': 121},
' Handlers-cleaners': {'precision': 0.12244897959183673,
'recall': 0.08955223880597014,
'f1-score': 0.10344827586206895,
'support': 201},
' Machine-op-inspct': {'precision': 0.1412639405204461,
'recall': 0.13523131672597866,
'f1-score': 0.1381818181818182,
'support': 281},
' Other-service': {'precision': 0.26406926406926406,
'recall': 0.13863636363636364,
'f1-score': 0.18181818181818182,
'support': 440},
' Priv-house-serv': {'precision': 0.0,
'recall': 0.0,
'f1-score': 0.0,
'support': 20},
' Prof-specialty': {'precision': 0.3870558375634518,
'recall': 0.5066445182724253,
'f1-score': 0.43884892086330934,
'support': 602},
' Protective-serv': {'precision': 0.0,
'recall': 0.0,
'f1-score': 0.0,
'support': 111},
' Sales': {'precision': 0.1510791366906475,
'recall': 0.15412844036697249,
'f1-score': 0.15258855585831063,
'support': 545},
' Tech-support': {'precision': 0.5,
'recall': 0.007042253521126761,
'f1-score': 0.01388888888888889,
'support': 142},
' Transport-moving': {'precision': 0.15517241379310345,
'recall': 0.0410958904109589,
'f1-score': 0.06498194945848376,
'support': 219},
'accuracy': 0.2885300901656532,
'macro avg': {'precision': 0.2319994364314932,
'recall': 0.19115808471772017,
'f1-score': 0.1883163244636373,
'support': 4769},
'weighted avg': {'precision': 0.2844555024264947,
'recall': 0.2885300901656532,
'f1-score': 0.2703546074030102,
'support': 4769}})])```

However, you must be careful here as certain metrics require predicted probabilities rather than classes. Since the label columns remains in the `test_data` DataFrame, we can instead use the shorthand:

```perf = predictor.evaluate(test_data)
```
```distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 21% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 20% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 19% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 18% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 17% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 17% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 16% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 15% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 15% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 14% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 14% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
```
```Predictive performance on given dataset: accuracy = 0.2885300901656532
```

which will correctly select between `predict()` or `predict_proba()` depending on the evaluation metric.

Interpretability (feature importance)¶

To better understand our trained predictor, we can estimate the overall importance of each feature:

```importance_scores = predictor.feature_importance(test_data)
print(importance_scores)
```
```Computing raw permutation importance for 14 features on weighted_ensemble_k0_l1 ...
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 13% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 13% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
62.61s  = Expected runtime
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 12% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 12% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 11% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 11% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 10% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 10% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 10% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 10% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 10% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 10% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 10% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 10% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
61.75s  = Actual runtime
```
```education-num     0.067
workclass         0.043
sex               0.034
hours-per-week    0.019
class             0.008
education         0.002
fnlwgt            0.002
capital-gain      0.001
marital-status    0.001
native-country    0.000
capital-loss      0.000
race              0.000
age              -0.002
relationship     -0.008
dtype: float64
```

Computed via permutation-shuffling, these feature importance scores quantify the drop in predictive performance (of the already trained predictor) when one column’s values are randomly shuffled across rows. The top features in this list contribute most to AutoGluon’s accuracy (for predicting when/if a patient will be readmitted to the hospital). Features with non-positive importance score hardly contribute to the predictor’s accuracy, or may even be actively harmful to include in the data (consider removing these features from your data and calling `fit` again). These scores facilitate interpretability of the predictor’s global behavior (which features it relies on for all predictions) rather than local explanations that only rationalize one particular prediction.

Accelerating inference¶

We describe multiple ways to reduce the time it takes for AutoGluon to produce predictions.

Keeping models in memory¶

By default, AutoGluon loads models into memory one at a time and only when they are needed for prediction. This strategy is robust for large stacked/bagged ensembles, but leads to slower prediction times. If you plan to repeatedly make predictions (e.g. on new datapoints one at a time rather than one large test dataset), you can first specify that all models required for inference should be loaded into memory as follows:

```predictor.persist_models()

num_test = 20
preds = np.array(['']*num_test, dtype='object')
for i in range(num_test):
datapoint = test_data_nolabel.iloc[[i]]
pred_numpy = predictor.predict(datapoint)
preds[i] = pred_numpy[0]

perf = predictor.evaluate_predictions(y_test[:num_test], preds, auxiliary_metrics=True)
print("Predictions: ", preds)

predictor.unpersist_models()  # free memory by clearing models, future predict() calls will load models from disk
```
```distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 10% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 10% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 10% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 11% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 11% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 11% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 12% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 12% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 13% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 13% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 14% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 15% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 16% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 17% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 17% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 19% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 20% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 22% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 24% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 27% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 30% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 32% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 37% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 43% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 53% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 66% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 78% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 87% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 87% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 87% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 88% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 88% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 88% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 88% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 88% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 88% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 88% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 89% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 89% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 89% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 89% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
Persisting 3 models in memory. Models will require 0.1% of memory.
Evaluation: accuracy on test data: 0.25
/var/lib/jenkins/miniconda3/envs/autogluon_docs/lib/python3.7/site-packages/sklearn/metrics/_classification.py:1814: UserWarning: y_pred contains classes not in y_true
warnings.warn('y_pred contains classes not in y_true')
Evaluations on test data:
{
"accuracy": 0.25,
"accuracy_score": 0.25,
"balanced_accuracy_score": 0.22380952380952382,
"matthews_corrcoef": 0.14026929848666153
}
/var/lib/jenkins/miniconda3/envs/autogluon_docs/lib/python3.7/site-packages/sklearn/metrics/_classification.py:1221: UndefinedMetricWarning: Precision and F-score are ill-defined and being set to 0.0 in labels with no predicted samples. Use zero_division parameter to control this behavior.
_warn_prf(average, modifier, msg_start, len(result))
/var/lib/jenkins/miniconda3/envs/autogluon_docs/lib/python3.7/site-packages/sklearn/metrics/_classification.py:1221: UndefinedMetricWarning: Recall and F-score are ill-defined and being set to 0.0 in labels with no true samples. Use zero_division parameter to control this behavior.
_warn_prf(average, modifier, msg_start, len(result))
Detailed (per-class) classification report:
{
" ?": {
"precision": 1.0,
"recall": 0.5,
"f1-score": 0.6666666666666666,
"support": 2
},
"precision": 0.0,
"recall": 0.0,
"f1-score": 0.0,
"support": 0
},
" Craft-repair": {
"precision": 0.4,
"recall": 0.4,
"f1-score": 0.4000000000000001,
"support": 5
},
" Exec-managerial": {
"precision": 0.14285714285714285,
"recall": 0.3333333333333333,
"f1-score": 0.2,
"support": 3
},
" Handlers-cleaners": {
"precision": 0.0,
"recall": 0.0,
"f1-score": 0.0,
"support": 0
},
" Machine-op-inspct": {
"precision": 0.0,
"recall": 0.0,
"f1-score": 0.0,
"support": 1
},
" Other-service": {
"precision": 1.0,
"recall": 0.3333333333333333,
"f1-score": 0.5,
"support": 3
},
" Sales": {
"precision": 0.0,
"recall": 0.0,
"f1-score": 0.0,
"support": 4
},
" Transport-moving": {
"precision": 0.0,
"recall": 0.0,
"f1-score": 0.0,
"support": 2
},
"accuracy": 0.25,
"macro avg": {
"precision": 0.28253968253968254,
"recall": 0.17407407407407408,
"f1-score": 0.1962962962962963,
"support": 20
},
"weighted avg": {
"precision": 0.37142857142857144,
"recall": 0.25,
"f1-score": 0.27166666666666667,
"support": 20
}
}
Unpersisted 3 models: ['NeuralNetClassifier_STACKER_l0', 'weighted_ensemble_k0_l1', 'LightGBMClassifier_STACKER_l0']```
```Predictions:  [' Exec-managerial' ' Craft-repair' ' Craft-repair' ' Adm-clerical'
' Sales' ' Exec-managerial' ' Exec-managerial' ' Handlers-cleaners'
' Craft-repair' ' Adm-clerical' ' Other-service' ' Exec-managerial'
' Exec-managerial' ' Exec-managerial' ' Adm-clerical' ' ?'
' Handlers-cleaners' ' Craft-repair' ' Exec-managerial' ' Craft-repair']
```
```['NeuralNetClassifier_STACKER_l0',
'weighted_ensemble_k0_l1',
'LightGBMClassifier_STACKER_l0']
```

You can alternatively specify a particular model to persist via the `models` argument of `persist_models()`, or simply set `models='all'` to simultaneously load every single model that was trained during `fit`.

Using smaller ensemble or faster model for prediction¶

Without having to retrain any models, one can construct alternative ensembles that aggregate individual models’ predictions with different weighting schemes. These ensembles become smaller (and hence faster for prediction) if they assign nonzero weight to less models. You can produce a wide variety of ensembles with different accuracy-speed tradeoffs like this:

```additional_ensembles = predictor.fit_weighted_ensemble(expand_pareto_frontier=True)
print("Alternative ensembles you can use for prediction:", additional_ensembles)

```
```Fitting model: weighted_ensemble_custom_k0_l1 ...
0.3108   = Validation accuracy score
0.1s     = Training runtime
0.0s     = Validation runtime
```
```Alternative ensembles you can use for prediction: ['weighted_ensemble_custom_k0_l1']
```
model score_val pred_time_val fit_time pred_time_val_marginal fit_time_marginal stack_level can_infer fit_order
0 weighted_ensemble_k0_l1 0.310838 0.884005 24.579626 0.000422 0.104145 1 True 3
1 LightGBMClassifier_STACKER_l0 0.306748 0.242985 16.571771 0.242985 16.571771 0 True 2

The resulting leaderboard will contain the most accurate model for a given inference-latency. You can select whichever model exhibits acceptable latency from the leaderboard and use it for prediction.

```model_for_prediction = additional_ensembles[0]
predictions = predictor.predict(test_data, model=model_for_prediction)
predictor.delete_models(models_to_delete=additional_ensembles, dry_run=False)  # delete these extra models so they don't affect rest of tutorial
```
```distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 18% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 17% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 16% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 15% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 15% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 14% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 14% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 13% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 13% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 12% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 12% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
Deleting model weighted_ensemble_custom_k0_l1. All files under agModels-predictOccupation/models/weighted_ensemble_custom_k0_l1/ will be removed.
```

Collapsing bagged ensembles via refit_full¶

For an ensemble predictor trained with bagging (as done above), recall there ~10 bagged copies of each individual model trained on different train/validation folds. We can collapse this bag of ~10 models into a single model that’s fit to the full dataset, which can greatly reduce its memory/latency requirements (but may also reduce accuracy). Below we refit such a model for each original model but you can alternatively do this for just a particular model by specifying the `model` argument of `refit_full()`.

```refit_model_map = predictor.refit_full()
print("Name of each refit-full model corresponding to a previous bagged ensemble:")
print(refit_model_map)
```
```Fitting model: NeuralNetClassifier_FULL_STACKER_l0 ...
0.31s    = Training runtime
Fitting model: LightGBMClassifier_FULL_STACKER_l0 ...
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 12% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
0.63s    = Training runtime
Fitting model: weighted_ensemble_FULL_k0_l1 ...
0.3108   = Validation accuracy score
0.01s    = Training runtime
0.0s     = Validation runtime
```
```Name of each refit-full model corresponding to a previous bagged ensemble:
{'NeuralNetClassifier_STACKER_l0': 'NeuralNetClassifier_FULL_STACKER_l0', 'LightGBMClassifier_STACKER_l0': 'LightGBMClassifier_FULL_STACKER_l0', 'weighted_ensemble_k0_l1': 'weighted_ensemble_FULL_k0_l1'}
```
```distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 11% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 11% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 10% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 10% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 10% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 10% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
distributed.utils_perf - WARNING - full garbage collections took 10% CPU time recently (threshold: 10%)
```
model score_test score_val pred_time_test pred_time_val fit_time pred_time_test_marginal pred_time_val_marginal fit_time_marginal stack_level can_infer fit_order
0 LightGBMClassifier_STACKER_l0 0.288530 0.306748 0.424271 0.242985 16.571771 0.424271 0.242985 16.571771 0 True 2
1 weighted_ensemble_k0_l1 0.288530 0.310838 13.757331 0.884005 24.579626 0.002365 0.000422 0.104145 1 True 3
2 weighted_ensemble_FULL_k0_l1 0.280981 NaN 0.708103 NaN 0.947980 0.002834 0.000423 0.007470 1 True 6
3 LightGBMClassifier_FULL_STACKER_l0 0.279933 NaN 0.025584 NaN 0.633670 0.025584 NaN 0.633670 0 True 5
4 NeuralNetClassifier_FULL_STACKER_l0 0.134410 NaN 0.679684 NaN 0.306840 0.679684 NaN 0.306840 0 True 4
5 NeuralNetClassifier_STACKER_l0 0.121409 0.124744 13.330696 0.640599 7.903710 13.330696 0.640599 7.903710 0 True 1

This adds the refit-full models to the leaderboard and we can opt to use any of them for prediction just like any other model. Note `pred_time_test` and `pred_time_val` list the time taken to produce predictions with each model (in seconds) on the test/validation data. Since the refit-full models were trained using all of the data, there is no internal validation score (`score_val`) available for them. You can also call `refit_full()` with non-bagged models to refit the same models to your full dataset (there won’t be memory/latency gains in this case but test accuracy may improve).

Model distillation¶

While computationally-favorable, single individual models will usually have lower accuracy than weighted/stacked/bagged ensembles. Model Distillation offers one way to retain the computational benefits of a single model, while enjoying some of the accuracy-boost that comes with ensembling. The idea is to train the individual model (which we can call the student) to mimic the predictions of the full stack ensemble (the teacher). Like `refit_full()`, the `distill()` function will produce additional models we can opt to use for prediction.

```student_models = predictor.distill(time_limits=30)  # specify much longer time-limits in real applications
print(student_models)
preds_student = predictor.predict(test_data_nolabel, model=student_models[0])
print(f"predictions from {student_models[0]}:", preds_student)
```
```Distilling with teacher_preds=soft, augment_method=spunge ...
SPUNGE: Augmenting training data with 1955 synthetic samples for distillation...
Distilling with each of these student models: ['LightGBMClassifier_DSTL', 'NeuralNetClassifier_DSTL']
Fitting model: LightGBMClassifier_DSTL ... Training model for up to 30.0s of the 30.0s of remaining time.
1.7s     = Training runtime
0.01s    = Validation runtime
0.3776   = Validation accuracy score
Fitting model: NeuralNetClassifier_DSTL ... Training model for up to 28.25s of the 28.25s of remaining time.
0.55s    = Training runtime
0.04s    = Validation runtime
0.0816   = Validation accuracy score
```
```['LightGBMClassifier_DSTL', 'NeuralNetClassifier_DSTL']
predictions from LightGBMClassifier_DSTL: [' Exec-managerial' ' Exec-managerial' ' Craft-repair' ... ' Sales'
' Sales' ' Craft-repair']
model  score_test  score_val  pred_time_test  pred_time_val   fit_time  pred_time_test_marginal  pred_time_val_marginal  fit_time_marginal  stack_level  can_infer  fit_order
0        LightGBMClassifier_STACKER_l0    0.288530   0.306748        0.430690       0.242985  16.571771                 0.430690                0.242985          16.571771            0       True          2
1              weighted_ensemble_k0_l1    0.288530   0.310838       14.364351       0.884005  24.579626                 0.002270                0.000422           0.104145            1       True          3
2              LightGBMClassifier_DSTL    0.286853   0.377551        0.031473       0.013264   1.696921                 0.031473                0.013264           1.696921            0       True          7
3         weighted_ensemble_FULL_k0_l1    0.280981        NaN        0.757238            NaN   0.947980                 0.002953                0.000423           0.007470            1       True          6
4   LightGBMClassifier_FULL_STACKER_l0    0.279933        NaN        0.025244            NaN   0.633670                 0.025244                     NaN           0.633670            0       True          5
5             NeuralNetClassifier_DSTL    0.136087   0.081633        0.619742       0.036213   0.552936                 0.619742                0.036213           0.552936            0       True          8
6  NeuralNetClassifier_FULL_STACKER_l0    0.134410        NaN        0.729041            NaN   0.306840                 0.729041                     NaN           0.306840            0       True          4
7       NeuralNetClassifier_STACKER_l0    0.121409   0.124744       13.931391       0.640599   7.903710                13.931391                0.640599           7.903710            0       True          1
```
model score_test score_val pred_time_test pred_time_val fit_time pred_time_test_marginal pred_time_val_marginal fit_time_marginal stack_level can_infer fit_order
0 LightGBMClassifier_STACKER_l0 0.288530 0.306748 0.430690 0.242985 16.571771 0.430690 0.242985 16.571771 0 True 2
1 weighted_ensemble_k0_l1 0.288530 0.310838 14.364351 0.884005 24.579626 0.002270 0.000422 0.104145 1 True 3
2 LightGBMClassifier_DSTL 0.286853 0.377551 0.031473 0.013264 1.696921 0.031473 0.013264 1.696921 0 True 7
3 weighted_ensemble_FULL_k0_l1 0.280981 NaN 0.757238 NaN 0.947980 0.002953 0.000423 0.007470 1 True 6
4 LightGBMClassifier_FULL_STACKER_l0 0.279933 NaN 0.025244 NaN 0.633670 0.025244 NaN 0.633670 0 True 5
5 NeuralNetClassifier_DSTL 0.136087 0.081633 0.619742 0.036213 0.552936 0.619742 0.036213 0.552936 0 True 8
6 NeuralNetClassifier_FULL_STACKER_l0 0.134410 NaN 0.729041 NaN 0.306840 0.729041 NaN 0.306840 0 True 4
7 NeuralNetClassifier_STACKER_l0 0.121409 0.124744 13.931391 0.640599 7.903710 13.931391 0.640599 7.903710 0 True 1

Faster presets or hyperparameters¶

Instead of trying to speed up a cumbersome trained model at prediction time, if you know inference latency or memory will be an issue at the outset, then you can adjust the training process accordingly to ensure `fit()` does not produce unwieldy models.

One option is to specify more lightweight `presets`:

```presets = ['good_quality_faster_inference_only_refit', 'optimize_for_deployment']
presets=presets, time_limits=30)
```
```No output_directory specified. Models will be saved in: AutogluonModels/ag-20201023_220132/
Beginning AutoGluon training ... Time limit = 30s
AutoGluon will save models to AutogluonModels/ag-20201023_220132/
AutoGluon Version:  0.0.15b20201023
Train Data Rows:    500
Train Data Columns: 14
Preprocessing data ...
AutoGluon infers your prediction problem is: 'multiclass' (because dtype of label-column == object).
First 10 (of 15) unique label values:  [' Exec-managerial', ' Other-service', ' Craft-repair', ' Sales', ' Prof-specialty', ' Protective-serv', ' ?', ' Adm-clerical', ' Machine-op-inspct', ' Tech-support']
If 'multiclass' is not the correct problem_type, please manually specify the problem_type argument in fit() (You may specify problem_type as one of: ['binary', 'multiclass', 'regression'])
Warning: Some classes in the training set have fewer than 10 examples. AutoGluon will only keep 12 out of 15 classes for training and will not try to predict the rare classes. To keep more classes, increase the number of datapoints from these rare classes in the training data or reduce label_count_threshold.
Fraction of data from classes with at least 10 examples that will be kept for training models: 0.978
Train Data Class Count: 12
Using Feature Generators to preprocess the data ...
Fitting AutoMLPipelineFeatureGenerator...
Available Memory:                    21796.73 MB
Train Data (Original)  Memory Usage: 0.29 MB (0.0% of available memory)
Inferring data type of each feature based on column values. Set feature_metadata_in to manually specify special dtypes of the features.
Stage 1 Generators:
Fitting AsTypeFeatureGenerator...
Stage 2 Generators:
Fitting FillNaFeatureGenerator...
Stage 3 Generators:
Fitting IdentityFeatureGenerator...
Fitting CategoryFeatureGenerator...
Fitting CategoryMemoryMinimizeFeatureGenerator...
Stage 4 Generators:
Fitting DropUniqueFeatureGenerator...
Types of features in original data (raw dtype, special dtypes):
('int', [])    : 6 | ['age', 'fnlwgt', 'education-num', 'capital-gain', 'capital-loss', ...]
('object', []) : 8 | ['workclass', 'education', 'marital-status', 'relationship', 'race', ...]
Types of features in processed data (raw dtype, special dtypes):
('category', []) : 8 | ['workclass', 'education', 'marital-status', 'relationship', 'race', ...]
('int', [])      : 6 | ['age', 'fnlwgt', 'education-num', 'capital-gain', 'capital-loss', ...]
0.0s = Fit runtime
14 features in original data used to generate 14 features in processed data.
Train Data (Processed) Memory Usage: 0.03 MB (0.0% of available memory)
Data preprocessing and feature engineering runtime = 0.06s ...
AutoGluon will gauge predictive performance using evaluation metric: 'accuracy'
To change this, specify the eval_metric argument of fit()
AutoGluon will early stop models using evaluation metric: 'accuracy'
Fitting model: NeuralNetClassifier_STACKER_l0 ... Training model for up to 29.94s of the 29.94s of remaining time.
Ran out of time, stopping training early.
Ran out of time, stopping training early.
Ran out of time, stopping training early.
0.3006   = Validation accuracy score
25.83s   = Training runtime
0.16s    = Validation runtime
Fitting model: RandomForestClassifierGini_STACKER_l0 ... Training model for up to 3.93s of the 3.93s of remaining time.
Warning: Reducing model 'n_estimators' from 300 -> 46 due to low time. Expected time usage reduced from 4.0s -> 0.6s...
Warning: Reducing model 'n_estimators' from 300 -> 53 due to low time. Expected time usage reduced from 4.0s -> 0.7s...
Warning: Reducing model 'n_estimators' from 300 -> 65 due to low time. Expected time usage reduced from 3.9s -> 0.9s...
Warning: Reducing model 'n_estimators' from 300 -> 87 due to low time. Expected time usage reduced from 4.0s -> 1.2s...
Warning: Reducing model 'n_estimators' from 300 -> 147 due to low time. Expected time usage reduced from 4.0s -> 1.9s...
0.3027   = Validation accuracy score
1.44s    = Training runtime
0.54s    = Validation runtime
Fitting model: RandomForestClassifierEntr_STACKER_l0 ... Training model for up to 1.95s of the 1.95s of remaining time.
Warning: Model is expected to require 4.0s to train, which exceeds the maximum time limit of 0.3s, skipping model...
Time limit exceeded... Skipping RandomForestClassifierEntr_STACKER_l0.
Fitting model: ExtraTreesClassifierGini_STACKER_l0 ... Training model for up to 1.83s of the 1.83s of remaining time.
Warning: Model is expected to require 4.0s to train, which exceeds the maximum time limit of 0.3s, skipping model...
Time limit exceeded... Skipping ExtraTreesClassifierGini_STACKER_l0.
Fitting model: ExtraTreesClassifierEntr_STACKER_l0 ... Training model for up to 1.7s of the 1.7s of remaining time.
Warning: Model is expected to require 3.9s to train, which exceeds the maximum time limit of 0.3s, skipping model...
Time limit exceeded... Skipping ExtraTreesClassifierEntr_STACKER_l0.
Fitting model: LightGBMClassifier_STACKER_l0 ... Training model for up to 1.58s of the 1.58s of remaining time.
Ran out of time, early stopping on iteration 4. Best iteration is:
[4]     train_set's multi_error: 0.524297       valid_set's multi_error: 0.734694
Ran out of time, early stopping on iteration 4. Best iteration is:
[3]     train_set's multi_error: 0.55243        valid_set's multi_error: 0.734694
Ran out of time, early stopping on iteration 5. Best iteration is:
[5]     train_set's multi_error: 0.539642       valid_set's multi_error: 0.683673
Ran out of time, early stopping on iteration 5. Best iteration is:
[2]     train_set's multi_error: 0.629156       valid_set's multi_error: 0.765306
Ran out of time, early stopping on iteration 6. Best iteration is:
[4]     train_set's multi_error: 0.561224       valid_set's multi_error: 0.690722
0.2781   = Validation accuracy score
1.48s    = Training runtime
0.06s    = Validation runtime
Fitting model: LightGBMClassifierXT_STACKER_l0 ... Training model for up to 0.03s of the 0.03s of remaining time.
Ran out of time, early stopping on iteration 1. Best iteration is:
[1]     train_set's multi_error: 0.808184       valid_set's multi_error: 0.795918
Time limit exceeded... Skipping LightGBMClassifierXT_STACKER_l0.
Completed 1/20 k-fold bagging repeats ...
Fitting model: weighted_ensemble_k0_l1 ... Training model for up to 29.94s of the -0.13s of remaining time.
0.3456   = Validation accuracy score
0.13s    = Training runtime
0.0s     = Validation runtime
AutoGluon training complete, total runtime = 30.27s ...
Fitting model: RandomForestClassifierGini_FULL_STACKER_l0 ...
0.24s    = Training runtime
Fitting model: NeuralNetClassifier_FULL_STACKER_l0 ...
1.4s     = Training runtime
Fitting model: LightGBMClassifier_FULL_STACKER_l0 ...
0.3s     = Training runtime
Fitting model: weighted_ensemble_FULL_k0_l1 ...
0.3456   = Validation accuracy score
0.02s    = Training runtime
0.0s     = Validation runtime
Deleting model NeuralNetClassifier_STACKER_l0. All files under AutogluonModels/ag-20201023_220132/models/NeuralNetClassifier_STACKER_l0/ will be removed.
Deleting model RandomForestClassifierGini_STACKER_l0. All files under AutogluonModels/ag-20201023_220132/models/RandomForestClassifierGini_STACKER_l0/ will be removed.
Deleting model LightGBMClassifier_STACKER_l0. All files under AutogluonModels/ag-20201023_220132/models/LightGBMClassifier_STACKER_l0/ will be removed.
Deleting model weighted_ensemble_k0_l1. All files under AutogluonModels/ag-20201023_220132/models/weighted_ensemble_k0_l1/ will be removed.
```

Another option is to specify more lightweight hyperparameters:

```predictor_light = task.fit(train_data=train_data, label=label_column, eval_metric=metric,
hyperparameters='very_light', time_limits=30)
```
```No output_directory specified. Models will be saved in: AutogluonModels/ag-20201023_220205/
Beginning AutoGluon training ... Time limit = 30s
AutoGluon will save models to AutogluonModels/ag-20201023_220205/
AutoGluon Version:  0.0.15b20201023
Train Data Rows:    500
Train Data Columns: 14
Preprocessing data ...
AutoGluon infers your prediction problem is: 'multiclass' (because dtype of label-column == object).
First 10 (of 15) unique label values:  [' Exec-managerial', ' Other-service', ' Craft-repair', ' Sales', ' Prof-specialty', ' Protective-serv', ' ?', ' Adm-clerical', ' Machine-op-inspct', ' Tech-support']
If 'multiclass' is not the correct problem_type, please manually specify the problem_type argument in fit() (You may specify problem_type as one of: ['binary', 'multiclass', 'regression'])
Warning: Some classes in the training set have fewer than 10 examples. AutoGluon will only keep 12 out of 15 classes for training and will not try to predict the rare classes. To keep more classes, increase the number of datapoints from these rare classes in the training data or reduce label_count_threshold.
Fraction of data from classes with at least 10 examples that will be kept for training models: 0.978
Train Data Class Count: 12
Using Feature Generators to preprocess the data ...
Fitting AutoMLPipelineFeatureGenerator...
Available Memory:                    21785.71 MB
Train Data (Original)  Memory Usage: 0.29 MB (0.0% of available memory)
Inferring data type of each feature based on column values. Set feature_metadata_in to manually specify special dtypes of the features.
Stage 1 Generators:
Fitting AsTypeFeatureGenerator...
Stage 2 Generators:
Fitting FillNaFeatureGenerator...
Stage 3 Generators:
Fitting IdentityFeatureGenerator...
Fitting CategoryFeatureGenerator...
Fitting CategoryMemoryMinimizeFeatureGenerator...
Stage 4 Generators:
Fitting DropUniqueFeatureGenerator...
Types of features in original data (raw dtype, special dtypes):
('int', [])    : 6 | ['age', 'fnlwgt', 'education-num', 'capital-gain', 'capital-loss', ...]
('object', []) : 8 | ['workclass', 'education', 'marital-status', 'relationship', 'race', ...]
Types of features in processed data (raw dtype, special dtypes):
('category', []) : 8 | ['workclass', 'education', 'marital-status', 'relationship', 'race', ...]
('int', [])      : 6 | ['age', 'fnlwgt', 'education-num', 'capital-gain', 'capital-loss', ...]
0.0s = Fit runtime
14 features in original data used to generate 14 features in processed data.
Train Data (Processed) Memory Usage: 0.03 MB (0.0% of available memory)
Data preprocessing and feature engineering runtime = 0.06s ...
AutoGluon will gauge predictive performance using evaluation metric: 'accuracy'
To change this, specify the eval_metric argument of fit()
AutoGluon will early stop models using evaluation metric: 'accuracy'
Fitting model: NeuralNetClassifier ... Training model for up to 29.94s of the 29.94s of remaining time.
0.3061   = Validation accuracy score
3.51s    = Training runtime
0.04s    = Validation runtime
Fitting model: LightGBMClassifier ... Training model for up to 26.39s of the 26.39s of remaining time.
0.3265   = Validation accuracy score
6.66s    = Training runtime
0.01s    = Validation runtime
Fitting model: LightGBMClassifierXT ... Training model for up to 19.71s of the 19.71s of remaining time.
0.3673   = Validation accuracy score
4.45s    = Training runtime
0.01s    = Validation runtime
Fitting model: CatboostClassifier ... Training model for up to 15.23s of the 15.23s of remaining time.
0.3571   = Validation accuracy score
4.41s    = Training runtime
0.01s    = Validation runtime
Fitting model: weighted_ensemble_k0_l1 ... Training model for up to 29.94s of the 10.71s of remaining time.
0.3673   = Validation accuracy score
0.1s     = Training runtime
0.0s     = Validation runtime
AutoGluon training complete, total runtime = 19.4s ...
```

Here you can set `hyperparameters` to either ‘light’, ‘very_light’, or ‘toy’ to obtain progressively smaller (but less accurate) models and predictors. Advanced users may instead try manually specifying particular models’ hyperparameters in order to make them faster/smaller.

Finally, you may also exclude specific unwieldy models from being trained at all. Below we exclude models that tend to be slower (K Nearest Neighbors, Neural Network, models with custom larger-than-default hyperparameters):

```excluded_model_types = ['KNN','NN','custom']
excluded_model_types=excluded_model_types, time_limits=30)
```
```No output_directory specified. Models will be saved in: AutogluonModels/ag-20201023_220224/
Beginning AutoGluon training ... Time limit = 30s
AutoGluon will save models to AutogluonModels/ag-20201023_220224/
AutoGluon Version:  0.0.15b20201023
Train Data Rows:    500
Train Data Columns: 14
Preprocessing data ...
AutoGluon infers your prediction problem is: 'multiclass' (because dtype of label-column == object).
First 10 (of 15) unique label values:  [' Exec-managerial', ' Other-service', ' Craft-repair', ' Sales', ' Prof-specialty', ' Protective-serv', ' ?', ' Adm-clerical', ' Machine-op-inspct', ' Tech-support']
If 'multiclass' is not the correct problem_type, please manually specify the problem_type argument in fit() (You may specify problem_type as one of: ['binary', 'multiclass', 'regression'])
Warning: Some classes in the training set have fewer than 10 examples. AutoGluon will only keep 12 out of 15 classes for training and will not try to predict the rare classes. To keep more classes, increase the number of datapoints from these rare classes in the training data or reduce label_count_threshold.
Fraction of data from classes with at least 10 examples that will be kept for training models: 0.978
Train Data Class Count: 12
Using Feature Generators to preprocess the data ...
Fitting AutoMLPipelineFeatureGenerator...
Available Memory:                    21746.75 MB
Train Data (Original)  Memory Usage: 0.29 MB (0.0% of available memory)
Inferring data type of each feature based on column values. Set feature_metadata_in to manually specify special dtypes of the features.
Stage 1 Generators:
Fitting AsTypeFeatureGenerator...
Stage 2 Generators:
Fitting FillNaFeatureGenerator...
Stage 3 Generators:
Fitting IdentityFeatureGenerator...
Fitting CategoryFeatureGenerator...
Fitting CategoryMemoryMinimizeFeatureGenerator...
Stage 4 Generators:
Fitting DropUniqueFeatureGenerator...
Types of features in original data (raw dtype, special dtypes):
('int', [])    : 6 | ['age', 'fnlwgt', 'education-num', 'capital-gain', 'capital-loss', ...]
('object', []) : 8 | ['workclass', 'education', 'marital-status', 'relationship', 'race', ...]
Types of features in processed data (raw dtype, special dtypes):
('category', []) : 8 | ['workclass', 'education', 'marital-status', 'relationship', 'race', ...]
('int', [])      : 6 | ['age', 'fnlwgt', 'education-num', 'capital-gain', 'capital-loss', ...]
0.0s = Fit runtime
14 features in original data used to generate 14 features in processed data.
Train Data (Processed) Memory Usage: 0.03 MB (0.0% of available memory)
Data preprocessing and feature engineering runtime = 0.07s ...
AutoGluon will gauge predictive performance using evaluation metric: 'accuracy'
To change this, specify the eval_metric argument of fit()
AutoGluon will early stop models using evaluation metric: 'accuracy'
Excluded Model Types: ['KNN', 'NN', 'custom']
Found 'NN' model in hyperparameters, but 'NN' is present in excluded_model_types and will be removed.
Found 'KNN' model in hyperparameters, but 'KNN' is present in excluded_model_types and will be removed.
Found 'custom' model in hyperparameters, but 'custom' is present in excluded_model_types and will be removed.
Fitting model: RandomForestClassifierGini ... Training model for up to 29.93s of the 29.93s of remaining time.
0.2857   = Validation accuracy score
0.62s    = Training runtime
0.11s    = Validation runtime
Fitting model: RandomForestClassifierEntr ... Training model for up to 29.17s of the 29.17s of remaining time.
0.3061   = Validation accuracy score
0.62s    = Training runtime
0.11s    = Validation runtime
Fitting model: ExtraTreesClassifierGini ... Training model for up to 28.41s of the 28.41s of remaining time.
0.2653   = Validation accuracy score
0.52s    = Training runtime
0.11s    = Validation runtime
Fitting model: ExtraTreesClassifierEntr ... Training model for up to 27.73s of the 27.73s of remaining time.
0.2551   = Validation accuracy score
0.52s    = Training runtime
0.11s    = Validation runtime
Fitting model: LightGBMClassifier ... Training model for up to 27.05s of the 27.05s of remaining time.
0.3265   = Validation accuracy score
6.64s    = Training runtime
0.01s    = Validation runtime
Fitting model: LightGBMClassifierXT ... Training model for up to 20.4s of the 20.4s of remaining time.
0.3673   = Validation accuracy score
4.44s    = Training runtime
0.02s    = Validation runtime
Fitting model: CatboostClassifier ... Training model for up to 15.93s of the 15.93s of remaining time.
0.3571   = Validation accuracy score
4.34s    = Training runtime
0.01s    = Validation runtime
Fitting model: weighted_ensemble_k0_l1 ... Training model for up to 29.93s of the 10.95s of remaining time.
0.3673   = Validation accuracy score
0.16s    = Training runtime
0.0s     = Validation runtime
AutoGluon training complete, total runtime = 19.23s ...```

If you encounter memory issues¶

To reduce memory usage during training, you may try each of the following strategies individually or combinations of them (these may harm accuracy):

• In `fit()`, set `num_bagging_sets = 1` (can also try values greater than 1 to harm accuracy less).

• In `fit()`, set `excluded_model_types = ['KNN','XT','RF']` (or some subset of these models).

• Try different `presets` in `fit()`.

• In `fit()`, set `hyperparameters = ‘light’` or `hyperparameters = 'very_light'`.

• Text fields in your table require substantial memory for N-gram featurization. To mitigate this in `fit()`, you can either: (1) add `'ignore_text'` to your `presets` list (to ignore text features), or (2) specify the argument:

```feature_generator = AutoMLPipelineFeatureGenerator(vectorizer=CountVectorizer(min_df=30, ngram_range=(1, 3), max_features=MAX_NGRAM, dtype=np.uint8))
```

where `MAX_NGRAM = 1000` say (try various values under 10000 to reduce the number of N-gram features used to represent each text field), and CountVectorizer, AutoMLPipelineFeatureGenerator must be first imported via:

```from sklearn.feature_extraction.text import CountVectorizer
from autogluon.tabular.features import AutoMLPipelineFeatureGenerator
```

In addition to reducing memory usage, many of the above strategies can also be used to reduce training times.

To reduce memory usage during inference:

• If trying to produce predictions for a large test dataset, break the test data into smaller chunks as demonstrated in FAQ.

• If models have been previously persisted in memory but inference-speed is not a major concern, call `predictor.unpersist_models()`.

• If models have been previously persisted in memory, bagging was used in `fit()`, and inference-speed is a concern: call `predictor.refit_full()` and use one of the refit-full models for prediction (ensure this is the only model persisted in memory).

If you encounter disk space issues¶

To reduce disk usage, you may try each of the following strategies individually or combinations of them:

• Make sure to delete all `output_directory` folders from previous `fit()` runs! These can eat up your free space if you call `fit()` many times. If you didn’t specify `output_directory`, AutoGluon still automatically saved its models to a folder called: “AutogluonModels/ag-[TIMESTAMP]”, where TIMESTAMP records when `fit()` was called, so make sure to also delete these folders if you run low on free space.

• Call `predictor.save_space()` to delete auxiliary files produced during `fit()`.

• Call `predictor.delete_models(models_to_keep='best', dry_run=False)` if you only intend to use this predictor for inference going forward (will delete files required for non-prediction-related functionality like `fit_summary`).

• In `fit()`, you can add `'optimize_for_deployment'` to the `presets` list, which will automatically invoke the previous two strategies after training.

• Most of the above strategies to reduce memory usage will also reduce disk usage (but may harm accuracy).

References¶

The following paper describes how AutoGluon internally operates on tabular data:

Erickson et al. AutoGluon-Tabular: Robust and Accurate AutoML for Structured Data. Arxiv, 2020.